Home Ahead of print Instructions Contacts
About us Current issue Submit article Advertise  
Editorial board Archives Subscribe Login   


 
 Table of Contents  
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 28  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 6-17

An update on autosomal recessive hearing loss and loci involved in it


1 Cancer Research Center, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Rahmatieh, Shahrekord, Iran
2 Department of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Basic Health Sciences Institute, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran
3 Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Basic Health Sciences Institute, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran

Date of Submission27-Jul-2021
Date of Decision05-Aug-2021
Date of Acceptance03-Jan-2022
Date of Web Publication25-Apr-2022

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Fatemeh Azadegan-Dehkordi
Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Basic Health Sciences Institute, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord
Iran
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/indianjotol.indianjotol_115_21

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 


Hearing plays an important role in human development and childhood speech learning for the proper functioning and development of people in society. Hearing loss (HL) is one of the most abnormal disabilities that affect the human senses. This disability may be due to genetic or environmental factors or both. Congenital HL is a disorder that occurs in at least 1 in 1000 births. At least 42 genetic loci are associated with syndromes, while more than 163 are associated with nonsyndromic HL (NSHL), and no specific gene therapy treatment has yet been proposed. Investigate the types of genes involved in regulating hair cell adhesion “and evaluate functions such as intracellular transport, the release of neurotransmitters, ion homeostasis, and hair cell cytoskeleton, and whether defects in them can impair cochlear and inner ear function.” Can help diagnose and treat the disease through various methods, including gene therapy. Given the complex internal and external structures of the ear, nervous system, and auditory mechanisms, it is not surprising that abnormalities in hundreds of different genes may lead to HL. In recent years, with the increasing number of studies on genes involved in congenital HL, counseling and treatment options with the help of gene therapy have increased. In this study, we aimed to describe genes and proteins and their functions in NSHL in the inner ear for screening and diagnostic programs of live birth and classify the genes involved in this model of deafness to open the door to gene therapy. It is on these genes. We hope to develop new molecular and gene therapies for autosomal recessive NSHL.

Keywords: Autosomal recessive, gene, gene therapy, hearing loss, loci, nonsyndromic


How to cite this article:
Koohiyan M, Hoseini M, Azadegan-Dehkordi F. An update on autosomal recessive hearing loss and loci involved in it. Indian J Otol 2022;28:6-17

How to cite this URL:
Koohiyan M, Hoseini M, Azadegan-Dehkordi F. An update on autosomal recessive hearing loss and loci involved in it. Indian J Otol [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Aug 8];28:6-17. Available from: https://www.indianjotol.org/text.asp?2022/28/1/6/343747




  Hearing Loss Top


The inheritance pattern of nonsyndromic hearing loss (NSHL) affects approximately 3 in every 1000 live births; autosomal recessive in 80% of cases, autosomal dominant in 20% of cases [Table 1],[1],[3] X linked in at least 1% of cases, and mitochondrial in at least 1% of cases [Table 2].[4],[5] Children born with HL encounter challenges in speech development, education, and language acquisition. These children often have an autosomal recessive pattern, while autosomal dominant pattern is usually postlingual. Genetic heterogeneity and intricate environmental factors have made it difficult to identify the genes causing HL.[6],[7], [107]
Table 1: Autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss genes

Click here to view
Table 2: X-linked nonsyndromic hearing loss genes

Click here to view


The purpose of this article is to provide an overall summary of autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL) loci. We group the loci according to their functions of protein products in hearing physiology [Table 1]. Understanding the precise function of these loci can help us find their contribution and their role in hearing which broadens our view and opens up pathways to the treatment of HL.


  Genes and Proteins and Their Function in Nonsyndromic Hearing Loss Top


Proteins of the cytoskeleton

The DFNB28 protein can regulate actin cytoskeletal system, cell contraction, and cell proliferation and indirectly connect and fix the F-actin strand. It can also act as a binding protein for the rearrangement of the proteins needed for the formation and displacement of F-actin. In the Palestinian, Pakistani, and Indian populations, the mutation in the TRIOBP gene (DFNB28) is the cause of ethnic ARNSHL. The mutation in a new isoform TRIOBP is responsible for deafness in this locus.[8]

The DFNBF24 protein is most likely involved in binding actin fibers to the plasma membrane. The three proteins are ezrin, radixin, and moesin, which make up the ERM family, which play an important role in forming the membrane-associated cytoskeleton by linking actin filaments and adhesion proteins.[9]

The DFNB25 protein is effective in the production of actin filaments in creating sensory cell stereocilia. The mutation in the GRX CR1 gene (DFNB25), leading to the identification of progressive NSHL, has been reported in 2 out of 6 Pakistani, Dutch, and Iranian families.[10]

The DFNB53 protein plays a role in fibrillogenesis by controlling the lateral growth of collagen II fibrils (home page of HL). The DFNB76 protein acts as a component of the liner of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton complex and plays a role in the relationship between the nuclear lamina and the cytoskeleton. The DFNB76 mutation is associated with the early onset of progressive deafness and has been reported in two Jewish-Iraqi families.[11]

Adhesion proteins

The DFNB12 protein is a member of cadherin proteins that interfere with calcium-dependent cellular adhesion. They prefer to interact with their communication cells in a hemophilic state.[12] This protein is required to create and maintain the proper organization of the stereocilia bundle of hair cells in the cochlea and the vestibule during postnatal/fetal development. Mutations in the CDH23 gene (DFNB12) have been reported in the Caucasian population in ARNSHL patients.[13]

DFNB22 proteins probably act as an adhesion molecule. OTOA gene (DFNB22) encodes otoancorin protein that is expressed on the surface of the spiral limbus in the cochlea.[14] In a study, a mouse model targeting to inactivate otoancorin for DFNB22 showed damage to inner hair cells' sensibility as the main cause of HL.[15]

The DFNB23 protein is a calcium-dependent cell–adhesion protein that is essential for maintaining the normal retinal and cochlear functions. PCDH15 gene (DFNB23) encoded protocadherin 15; mutations of this gene may cause either combined hearing and vision impairment (type 1 Usher syndrome [USH1F]) or NSHL.[16]

The DFNB106 protein can play an important role in activating the exchange of guanine of SOS1 and may also play an important role in membrane ruffling and regeneration of the actin cytoskeleton. In the cochlea, it is needed to maintain stereocilia in the adult hair cells. The DFNB16 protein plays an important role in forming horizontal top connectors between the stereocilia of the outer hair cell. Mutations in stereocilin cause HL from severe mild to moderate. HL starts in early childhood and remains constant over time. HL may be severe to profound. However, vestibular abnormalities have not yet been recognized.[17]

Motor proteins

DFNB15, DFNB72, and DFNB95 proteins are required for postnatal maturation of hair bundles and prolonged survival of hair cells and spiral ganglion (home page of HL).

The DFNB30 protein plays an important role in the actin-based motor with a protein kinase activity. It also plays a role in visual and auditory senses (PubMed: 12032315), which is also needed for the normal development of cochlear hair bundle and hearing and is also effective in the early stages of morphogenesis of cochlear hair bundle (home page of HL).[18]

Scaffolding proteins

DFNB2, DFNB3, DFNB37, and DFNB61 proteins are myosins that are actin-based motor molecules with ATPase activity, which play an important role in differentiation, morphogenesis, and organization of cochlear hair cell bundles.[19] DFNB18 is an anchoring/scaffolding protein, an important part of the functional network formed by USH1C, USH1G, CDH23, and MYO7A, and as a mediator of mechanotransduction in the cochlear hair cells, it is also needed for normal development and maintenance of the cochlear hair cell bundles.[20] The DFNB18b protein is a glycoprotein that is special for cellular membranes of the inner ear. This protein may play a role in inhibiting otoconial membranes and cupulae in neonatal vestibule neuropigliain, also it can play an important role in mechanotransduction and organization processes and the stabilization of the fibrillar network composition in the cochlea tectorial membrane.[21] The DFNB21 protein is one of the important noncollagenic components of the tectorial membrane. The tectorial membrane is an extracellular matrix of the inner ear that covers the neuroepithelium of the cochlea and is associated with the stereocilia bundles of certain sensory hair cells.[22]

Ion homeostasis

The DFNB9 protein plays the role of a key sensor of calcium ions involved in the plasma fusion of Ca2 + synaptic vesicle–plasma membrane. It also plays a role in controlling neurotransmitter release at these output synapses.[23] DFNB48 is a calcium-binding protein that is essential for maintaining the photoreceptor cell and its function, as well as reducing the amount of calcium produced by ATP, which plays an important role in the formation of intracellular calcium homeostasis (maybe involved in the mechanotransduction process).[24]

DFNB103 protein plays an important role in normal hearing and the formation of stereocilia in the inner ear and normal development of the organ of Corti.[25] This protein can also be transferred into membranes and form poorly selective ion channels for transporting chloride ions. It can also have a role in regulating transepithelial ion secretion and absorption.[26]

Ion channels

DFNB4 protein is a sodium-independent transporter that carries chloride and iodide. SLC26A4 gene encodes pendrin protein in humans, which is a 110 kDa glycosylated protein, which functions as a membrane carrier protein that transports particles.[27] Different studies have detected at least 200 mutations in the SLC26A4 gene, which is known as the second most common cause of ARNSHL in the world.[6] DFNB60 protein is a sodium ion-dependent transporter that can transport one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. It can also carry organic cations such as tetraethyl ammonium without the involvement of sodium.[28]

DFNB66, 67 proteins play an important role in regulating transducer channel conductance and are necessary for fast channel adaptation.[29] The DFNB73 protein acts as a beta unit for CLCNKA and CLCNKB chloride channels. DFNB68 protein acts as a receptor for the lysosphingolipid sphingosine 1-phosphate.[30]

DFNB97 protein acts as a receptor tyrosine kinase that transduces signals from the extracellular matrix into the cytoplasm by binding to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/HGF ligand.[31] DFNB42 protein is a membrane receptor.[32]

Tight junctions

The DFNB1a, DFNB1b proteins act as a gap junction that consists of a packaged complex of pairs of transmembrane channels and connexons that transmit materials to low-molecular-weight from one cell to the neighboring cell. GJB2 mutations were detected in nine ARNSHL (20%) patients from Iran, which was similar to the results of the previous investigations in other regions of Iran.[7],[33] Different investigations had determined that the c. 35delG mutation is the most common in many ethnic groups; this mutation accounts for 85% of the mutations in the GJB2 gene.[34],[35],[36] DFNB29 protein plays an important role in the tight junction-specific elimination of the intercellular space by calcium-independent cell–adhesion activity. Mutations in the CLDN14 gene (DFNB29) have been reported in two Pakistani families.[37]

DFNB49 protein is involved in the formation of tricellular tight junctions and of epithelial barriers. A family from Qatar was reported to have a mutation in this locus with a hearing degree of moderate to severe.[38]

Trance membrane

DFNB63 protein is a trance membrane.[39] DFNB8, DFNB10 proteins are serine proteases that affect hearing. These proteins act as allowable factors for cochlear hair cell survival and activation at the beginning of hearing.[40] DFNB7, 11 (TMC1) proteins act as an ion channel required for the normal function of the cochlear hair cells. DFNB7 locus was first identified on chromosome 9q13–q21 in two relative Indian deaf families.[41] The TMC1 protein has six transmembrane domains; mutations in this gene are a relatively common cause of HL in Indian, Pakistani, Turkish, and Tunisian families.[41],[42],[43],[44]

Other proteins involved in hearing

DFNB31 protein is involved in the conservation and elongation of outer and inner hair cell stereocilia in the Corti into the inner ear. Four classes of DFNB31 mRNA variants were identified in mouse P5 vestibular organs as well as in adult mice retinas,[45] with similar DFNB31 mRNA variants reported in humans.[46] DFNB36 protein is a multifunctional actin-bundling protein. This protein has an important role in the control of the establishment, dynamics, dimension, and signaling capacities of the actin filament-rich microvilli in the chemosensory and mechanosensory cells; further, it has a role in the formation and maintenance of the inner ear hair cell stereocilia.[47]

DFNB39 protein is necessary for adult parenchymal hepatocyte cells; it may also be a hepatotropic factor and a growth factor for a large spectrum of tissues and cell types. It plays a major role in activating ligand for the receptor tyrosine kinase MET. Three mutations in the HGF gene (DFNB39) were identified in Pakistani and Indian families with ARNSHL.[48] DFNB74 protein stimulates the reduction of protein-free and bound methionine sulfoxide to methionine.[49] Isoform 2 of this protein is necessary for hearing, and it repairs oxidized methionine in proteins by methionine sulfoxide reduction of methionine sulfoxides by using the corresponding methionine, so it keeps the biological activity of proteins after oxidative damage in effect reactive oxygen.[50]

DFNB77 protein acts in the hearing and normal function of the hair cells in the inner ear. A few mutations were detected in the LOXHD1 gene (DFNB77) in nine families with hereditary HL. Different types of pathogenic variants are in this gene.[51] DFNB99 protein is necessary for hearing and normal inner ear hair cell function.[52]

Regulation

The DFNB44 protein is involved in the formation of the cAMP signaling molecule in response to G protein signaling, as well as in increasing cellular calcium/calmodulin levels in reactions, and in regulatory activity in the central nervous system.[53] DFNB84 protein is a phosphatidylinositol phosphatase that is necessary for auditory function. This protein is involved in regulating phosphatidylinositol 4 and 5-bisphosphate (PIP2) levels in the basal region of the hair bundle.[54]

DFNB86 protein can be a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for Rab family proteins.[55] DFNB88 protein can act as a GAP for ARL2 with lower-specific acting.[56] DFNB91 protein acts in the regulation of serine proteinases present in the brain or extravasated from the blood. It is in the inner ear and acts against leakage of lysosomal content during stress and damage, which causes cell death and sensorineural HL. SERPINB6 gene (DFNB91) was mapped to 6p25.2 and mutation in this gene caused ARNSHL in a related Turkish family with five affected members.[57] DFNB93 protein is necessary for sound coding at inner hair cell synapses, probably by inhibiting the inactivation of voltage-gated calcium channel type 1.3 (Cav1.3) in the inner hair cells.[58] DFNB94 protein has catalytic activity.[59]

DFNB100 protein acts as a bifunctional inositol kinase. It is involved in the production of protein compounds that act in regulating a diversity of cellular processes, including apoptosis, vesicle trafficking, cytoskeletal dynamics, exocytosis, insulin signaling, and neutrophil activation.[60]

DFNB104 protein acts as the inhibitor of the small GTPase RHOA. It is necessary for normal growth of the inner and outer hair cell stereocilia in the cochlea of the inner ear. It has an important role in conserving the structural formation of the basal domain of stereocilia. It plays a role in mechanosensory hair cell function and normal hearing (HL home page). DFNB59 protein is necessary for the activity of auditory pathway neurons.[61]

Tumor suppressor

DFNB32, DFNB105 proteins are dual-specificity protein phosphatase, dephosphorylating tyrosine-, serine-, and threonine-phosphorylated proteins. They are also a lipid phosphatase; the lipid phosphatase activity is critical for its tumor suppressor function.[62] These can be a negative regulator of insulin signaling and glucose metabolism in the adipose tissues.[63]


  Transcription Factors Top


DFNB35 protein is a transcription factor that binds a canonical ESRRB recognition (ERRE) sequence 5'TCAAGGTCA-3' localized on promoter and enhancer of target genes regulating their expression or their transcription activity.[64]


  Signaling Top


DFNB102 protein is a signaling adapter that controls various cellular protrusions by regulating actin cytoskeleton dynamics and architecture. Depending on its association with other signal transducers, it can control various processes.[65]

DFNB108 protein is an mRNA splicing factor that controls the organization of epithelial cell-specific isoforms. It regulates splicing and expression of genes involved in inner ear extension, auditory hair cell differentiation, and cell destiny determination in the cochlear epithelium (HL home page).[66]


  Interactions of Genes in Hearing Loss Top


It is interesting to know that there is always limited information about hearing genes. For example, mutations in specific genes may cause the severity of HL from mild to profound, congenital to late-onset progressive, even when the same mutation is involved in different individuals of a family, which may now affect various factors, including environmental factors (sound waves) or other specific genes (interacting genes), in the background of that responsible genes. These effects might show alternative pathways by creating a deviation in the treatment strategy, which raises exciting prospects.[67] These genes may include proteins that directly interact with the normal gene proteins or may include transcription factors that affect time or/and the rate of transcription of the mutated gene or may be involved in genes that regulate the degradation, restoration, and revolution of proteins or mRNA, or those that are involved in alternate pathways to obtain a product with the same purpose as the mutant gene product.

It is also interesting to know that a polymorphism variant may have resulted in decreased transcription or the faster degradation of harmful mutant protein, which in this case is a useful effect.


  Gene Therapy for Hereditary Hearing Loss Top


Human disease is modeled using organized animal models of various hereditary HLs, then by gene therapy and intervention. Gene therapy for hereditary HL has made great strides. The new findings show that gene therapy is effective in various animal models of inherited HL and hopes to revolutionize the clinical field in the future. Important genes studied for gene therapy consist of MsrB3,[68] Pou4f3,[69] Vglut3,[70] Tmc1,[71] Ush1c,[72] Kcnq4,[73] and Gjb2.[74] According to new studies, several potential genes have also been linked to HL, which is hoped to be used for gene therapy research in the future, such as Pls1,[75] Cldn9,[76] and Clarin-2.[68],[77] Recent findings have shown that DFNB9 viral gene therapy can be performed using a high loading AAV vector and greatly improve gene transfer problems compared to dual AAV methods. The big problem in the research is how to compare the neonatal model of a mouse with a human infant, given that the human infant grew well at birth while the mice matured after a few weeks of birth, so the intervention on newborn mice is similar to the intervention. It is in the embryonic stage of human. To better mimic postnatal genetic HL, we need to expand the time span of intervention. A study in a model of adult mice HL reported a Tmc1 mutation. In this study, microRNA was injected into the cochlea through the AAV vector and showed that RNAi-mediated gene silencing reduces hearing and increases the survival of internal hair cells.[78] With the identification of more genes related to hearing (almost all of which are involved in hereditary HL mentioned above) and the development of gene therapy technology, further research and success in the field of HL gene therapy are expected. Although the gene therapy strategy for the treatment of hearing disorders in humans is still limited and difficult, it is hoped that with the rapid progress of gene therapy in the treatment of diseases, safe treatment for HL will be created.


  Conclusion Top


In this review, the genes related to inherit ARNSHL were investigated and described. Due to the genetic heterogeneity, the interference of many backgrounds modulating factors and genes, the specific features and characteristics of many mutations, and the large size of genes involved in HL, and the molecular diagnosis and treatment designs are faced with many ambiguities and complexities. It should be noted that the functions of these genes are more understandable with more time and additional studies. Furthermore, more genes that cause HL will be discovered soon. Hopefully, with new studies and continuous examination, the function of the ear and nerves will be better understood, and we hope that new molecular and gene therapy methods for ARNSHL will be created. With this study and the coherent introduction of genes involved in hereditary deafness that may involve many people from generation to generation and cause problems in their lives and well-being, we will advance the solution of gene therapy for HL soon. We are optimistic about the problems of humanity, it will not happen unless with the constant cooperation of scientists around the world in various scientific fields, including ENT specialists, geneticists, immunologists, virologists, and surgeons.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Azadegan-Dehkordi F, Ahmadi R, Koohiyan M, Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori M. Update of spectrum c. 35delG and c.-23+1G>A mutations on the GJB2 gene in individuals with autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss. Ann Hum Genet 2018;83:1-10.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Yazdanpanahi N, Tabatabaiefar MA, Farrokhi E, Abdian N, Bagheri N, Shahbazi S, et al. Compound heterozygosity for two novel SLC26A4 mutations in a large Iranian pedigree with Pendred syndrome. Clin Exp Otorhinolaryngol 2013;6:201-8.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Azadegan-Dehkordi F, Bahrami T, Shirzad M, Karbasi G, Yazdanpanahi N, Farrokhi E, et al. Mutations in GJB2 as major causes of autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss: First report of c. 299-300delAT mutation in Kurdish population of Iran. Korean J Audiol 2019;23:20-6.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Montazer Zohour M, Tabatabaiefar MA, Dehkordi FA, Farrokhi E, Akbari MT, Chaleshtori MH. Large-scale screening of mitochondrial DNA mutations among Iranian patients with prelingual nonsyndromic hearing impairment. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers 2012;16:271-8.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Azadegan-Dehkordi F, Ahmadi R, Bahrami T, Yazdanpanahi N, Farrokhi E, Tabatabaiefar MA, et al. A novel variant of SLC26A4 and first report of the c. 716T>A variant in Iranian pedigrees with non-syndromic sensorineural hearing loss. Am J Otolaryngol 2018;39:719-25.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Yazdanpanahi N, Tabatabaiefar MA, Bagheri N, Azadegan Dehkordi F, Farrokhi E, Hashemzadeh Chaleshtori M. The role and spectrum of SLC26A4 mutations in Iranian patients with autosomal recessive hereditary deafness. Int J Audiol 2015;54:124-30.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Koohiyan M, Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori M, Salehi M, Abtahi H, Reiisi S, Pourreza MR, et al. GJB2 mutations causing autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL) in two Iranian populations: Report of two novel variants. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2018;107:121-6.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Naseri M, Akbarzadehlaleh M, Masoudi M, Ahangari N, Poursadegh Zonouzi AA, Poursadegh Zonouzi A, et al. Genetic linkage analysis of DFNB4, DFNB28, DFNB93 loci in autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss: Evidence for digenic inheritance in GJB2 and GJB3 mutations. Iran J Public Health 2018;47:95-102.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Tsukada K, Nishio SY, Hattori M, Usami S. Ethnic-specific spectrum of GJB2 and SLC26A4 mutations: Their origin and a literature review. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2015;124 Suppl 1:61S-76S.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Schraders M, Lee K, Oostrik J, Huygen PL, Ali G, Hoefsloot LH, et al. Homozygosity mapping reveals mutations of GRXCR1 as a cause of autosomal-recessive nonsyndromic hearing impairment. Am J Hum Genet 2010;86:138-47.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Horn HF, Brownstein Z, Lenz DR, Shivatzki S, Dror AA, Dagan-Rosenfeld O, et al. The LINC complex is essential for hearing. J Clin Invest 2013;123:740-50.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Vanniya SP, Chandru J, Pavithra A, Jeffrey JM, Kalaimathi M, Ramakrishnan R, et al. Recurrence of reported CDH23 mutations causing DFNB12 in a special cohort of South Indian hearing impaired assortative mating families – An evaluation. Ann Hum Genet 2018;82:119-26.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Hilgert N, Smith RJ, Van Camp G. Forty-six genes causing nonsyndromic hearing impairment: Which ones should be analyzed in DNA diagnostics? Mutat Res 2009;681:189-96.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Fontana P, Morgutti M, Pecile V, Lenarduzzi S, Cappellani S, Falco M, et al. A novel OTOA mutation in an Italian family with hearing loss. Gene Rep 2017;9:111-4.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Lukashkin AN, Legan PK, Weddell TD, Lukashkina VA, Goodyear RJ, Welstead LJ, et al. A mouse model for human deafness DFNB22 reveals that hearing impairment is due to a loss of inner hair cell stimulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012;109:19351-6.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Ahmed ZM, Riazuddin S, Aye S, Ali RA, Venselaar H, Anwar S, et al. Gene structure and mutant alleles of PCDH15: Nonsyndromic deafness DFNB23 and type 1 Usher syndrome. Hum Genet 2008;124:215-23.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Back D, Shehata-Dieler W, Vona B, Hofrichter MA, Schroeder J, Haaf T, et al. Phenotypic characterization of DFNB16-associated hearing loss. Otol Neurotol 2019;40:e48-55.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Walsh T, Walsh V, Vreugde S, Hertzano R, Shahin H, Haika S, et al. From flies' eyes to our ears: Mutations in a human class III myosin cause progressive nonsyndromic hearing loss DFNB30. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002;99:7518-23.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Tabatabaiefar MA, Alasti F, Zohour MM, Shariati L, Farrokhi E, Farhud D, et al. Genetic linkage analysis of 15 DFNB loci in a group of Iranian families with autosomal recessive hearing loss. Iran J Public Health 2011;40:34.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Johnson KR, Gagnon LH, Webb LS, Peters LL, Hawes NL, Chang B, et al. Mouse models of USH1C and DFNB18: Phenotypic and molecular analyses of two new spontaneous mutations of the Ush1c gene. Hum Mol Genet 2003;12:3075-86.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Schraders M, Ruiz-Palmero L, Kalay E, Oostrik J, del Castillo FJ, Sezgin O, et al. Mutations of the gene encoding otogelin are a cause of autosomal-recessive nonsyndromic moderate hearing impairment. Am J Hum Genet 2012;91:883-9.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Meyer NC, Alasti F, Nishimura CJ, Imanirad P, Kahrizi K, Riazalhosseini Y, et al. Identification of three novel TECTA mutations in Iranian families with autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing impairment at the DFNB21 locus. Am J Med Genet A 2007;143A: 1623-9.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Yasunaga S, Grati M, Chardenoux S, Smith TN, Friedman TB, Lalwani AK, et al. OTOF encodes multiple long and short isoforms: Genetic evidence that the long ones underlie recessive deafness DFNB9. Am J Hum Genet 2000;67:591-600.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Sajjad M, Khattak AA, Bunn JE, Mackenzie I. Causes of childhood deafness in Pukhtoonkhwa Province of Pakistan and the role of consanguinity. JLO 2008;122:1057-63.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Jeyakumar A, Lentz J. The genetic basis of hearing loss: Recent advances and future prospects. Int J Head Neck Surg 2016;7:64-71.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Gallego-Martinez A, Espinosa-Sanchez JM, Lopez-Escamez JA. Genetic contribution to vestibular diseases. J Neurol 2018;265:29-34.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Everett LA, Glaser B, Beck JC, Idol JR, Buchs A, Heyman M, et al. Pendred syndrome is caused by mutations in a putative sulphate transporter gene (PDS). Nat Genet 1997;17:411-22.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Ben Said M, Grati M, Ishimoto T, Zou B, Chakchouk I, Ma Q, et al. A mutation in SLC22A4 encoding an organic cation transporter expressed in the cochlea strial endothelium causes human recessive non-syndromic hearing loss DFNB60. Hum Genet 2016;135:513-24.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Bensaïd M, Hmani-Aifa M, Hammami B, Tlili A, Hakim B, Charfeddine I, et al. DFNB66 and DFNB67 loci are non allelic and rarely contribute to autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss. Eur J Med Genet 2011;54:e565-9.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Ramzan M, Bashir R, Salman M, Mujtaba G, Sobreira N, Witmer PD, et al. Spectrum of genetic variants in moderate to severe sporadic hearing loss in Pakistan. Sci Rep 2020;10:11902.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Mujtaba G, Schultz JM, Imtiaz A, Morell RJ, Friedman TB, Naz S. A mutation of MET, encoding hepatocyte growth factor receptor, is associated with human DFNB97 hearing loss. J Med Genet 2015;52:548-52.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Hempstock W, Sugioka S, Ishizuka N, Sugawara T, Furuse M, Hayashi H. Angulin-2/ILDR1, a tricellular tight junction protein, does not affect water transport in the mouse large intestine. Sci Rep 2020;10:1-12.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
Azadegan-Dehkordi F, Bahrami T, Shirzad M, Karbasi G, Yazdanpanahi N, Farrokhi E, et al. Mutations in GJB2 as major causes of autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss: First report of c. 299-300delAT mutation in Kurdish population of Iran. J Audiol Otol 2019;23:20-6.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.
Koohiyan M, Azadegan-Dehkordi F, Koohian F, Abolhasani M, Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori M. Genetics of hereditary hearing loss in east Iran population: A systematic review of GJB2 mutations. Intractable Rare Dis Res 2019;8:172-8.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.
Koohiyan M, Azadegan-Dehkordi F, Koohian F, Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori M. Genetics of hearing loss in north Iran population: An update of spectrum and frequency of GJB2 mutations. J Audiol Otol 2019;23:175-80.  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.
Koohiyan M, Koohian F, Azadegan-Dehkordi F. GJB2-related hearing loss in central Iran: Review of the spectrum and frequency of gene mutations. Ann Hum Genet 2020;84:107-13.  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.
Wilcox ER, Burton QL, Naz S, Riazuddin S, Smith TN, Ploplis B, et al. Mutations in the gene encoding tight junction claudin-14 cause autosomal recessive deafness DFNB29. Cell 2001;104:165-72.  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.
Girotto G, Abdulhadi K, Buniello A, Vozzi D, Licastro D, d'Eustacchio A, et al. Linkage study and exome sequencing identify a BDP1 mutation associated with hereditary hearing loss. PLoS One 2013;8:e80323.  Back to cited text no. 38
    
39.
Taghizadeh SH, Kazeminezhad SR, Sefidgar SA, Yazdanpanahi N, Tabatabaeifar MA, Yousefi A, et al. Investigation of LRTOMT gene (locus DFNB63) mutations in Iranian patients with autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss. Int J Mol Cell Med 2013;2:41-5.  Back to cited text no. 39
    
40.
Guipponi M, Vuagniaux G, Wattenhofer M, Shibuya K, Vazquez M, Dougherty L, et al. The transmembrane serine protease (TMPRSS3) mutated in deafness DFNB8/10 activates the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in vitro. Hum Mol Genet 2002;11:2829-36.  Back to cited text no. 40
    
41.
Greinwald JH Jr., Scott DA, Marietta JR, Carmi R, Manaligod J, Ramesh A, et al. Construction of P1-derived artificial chromosome and yeast artificial chromosome contigs encompassing the DFNB7 and DFNB11 region of chromosome 9q13-21. Genome Res 1997;7:879-86.  Back to cited text no. 41
    
42.
Kitajiri SI, McNamara R, Makishima T, Husnain T, Zafar AU, Kittles RA, et al. Identities, frequencies and origins of TMC1 mutations causing DFNB7/B11 deafness in Pakistan. Clin Genet 2007;72:546-50.  Back to cited text no. 42
    
43.
Kalay E, Karaguzel A, Caylan R, Heister A, Cremers FP, Cremers CW, et al. Four novel TMC1 (DFNB7/DFNB11) mutations in Turkish patients with congenital autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss. Hum Mutat 2005;26:591.  Back to cited text no. 43
    
44.
Tlili A, Rebeh IB, Aifa-Hmani M, Dhouib H, Moalla J, Tlili-Chouchène J, et al. TMC1 but not TMC2 is responsible for autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing impairment in Tunisian families. Audiol Neurotol 2008;13:213-8.  Back to cited text no. 44
    
45.
Wright RN, Hong DH, Perkins B. RpgrORF15 connects to the usher protein network through direct interactions with multiple whirlin isoforms. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2012;53:1519-29.  Back to cited text no. 45
    
46.
Mburu P, Mustapha M, Varela A, Weil D, El-Amraoui A, Holme RH, et al. Defects in whirlin, a PDZ domain molecule involved in stereocilia elongation, cause deafness in the whirler mouse and families with DFNB31. Nat Genet 2003;34:421-8.  Back to cited text no. 46
    
47.
Naz S, Griffith AJ, Riazuddin S, Hampton LL, Battey JF Jr., Khan SN, et al. Mutations of ESPN cause autosomal recessive deafness and vestibular dysfunction. J Med Genet 2004;41:591-5.  Back to cited text no. 47
    
48.
Schultz JM, Khan SN, Ahmed ZM, Riazuddin S, Waryah AM, Chhatre D, et al. Noncoding mutations of HGF are associated with nonsyndromic hearing loss, DFNB39. Am J Hum Genet 2009;85:25-39.  Back to cited text no. 48
    
49.
Ahmed ZM, Yousaf R, Lee BC, Khan SN, Lee S, Lee K, et al. Functional null mutations of MSRB3 encoding methionine sulfoxide reductase are associated with human deafness DFNB74. Am J Hum Genet 2011;88:19-29.  Back to cited text no. 49
    
50.
Weissbach H, Etienne F, Hoshi T, Heinemann SH, Lowther WT, Matthews B, et al. Peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase: Structure, mechanism of action, and biological function. Arch Biochem Biophys 2002;397:172-8.  Back to cited text no. 50
    
51.
Grillet N, Schwander M, Hildebrand MS, Sczaniecka A, Kolatkar A, Velasco J, et al. Mutations in LOXHD1, an evolutionarily conserved stereociliary protein, disrupt hair cell function in mice and cause progressive hearing loss in humans. Am J Hum Genet 2009;85:328-37.  Back to cited text no. 51
    
52.
Li J, Zhao X, Xin Q, Shan S, Jiang B, Jin Y, et al. Whole-exome sequencing identifies a variant in TMEM 132 E causing autosomal-recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss DFNB 99. Hum Mutat 2015;36:98-105.  Back to cited text no. 52
    
53.
Smith RJ, Bale Jr JF, White KR. Sensorineural hearing loss in children. The Lancet 2005;365:879-90.  Back to cited text no. 53
    
54.
Li Z, Zhang Y, Zhang X, Cao C, Luo X, Gui Y, et al. OTOGL, a gelforming mucin protein, is nonessential for male germ cell development and spermatogenesis in mice. Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2021;19:1-8.  Back to cited text no. 54
    
55.
Rehman AU, Santos-Cortez RL, Morell RJ, Drummond MC, Ito T, Lee K, et al. Mutations in TBC1D24, a gene associated with epilepsy, also cause nonsyndromic deafness DFNB86. Am J Hum Genet 2014;94:144-52.  Back to cited text no. 55
    
56.
Jaworek TJ, Richard EM, Ivanova AA, Giese AP, Choo DI, Khan SN, et al. An alteration in ELMOD3, an Arl2 GTPase-activating protein, is associated with hearing impairment in humans. PLoS Genet 2013;9:e1003774.  Back to cited text no. 56
    
57.
Sirmaci A, Erbek S, Price J, Huang M, Duman D, Cengiz FB, et al. A truncating mutation in SERPINB6 is associated with autosomal-recessive nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss. Am J Hum Genet 2010;86:797-804.  Back to cited text no. 57
    
58.
Schrauwen I, Helfmann S, Inagaki A, Predoehl F, Tabatabaiefar MA, Picher MM, et al. A mutation in CABP2, expressed in cochlear hair cells, causes autosomal-recessive hearing impairment. Am J Hum Genet 2012;91:636-45.  Back to cited text no. 58
    
59.
Huang IA, Tuan PL, Jaing TH, Wu CT, Chao M, Wang HH, et al. Comparisons between full-time and part-time pediatric emergency physicians in pediatric emergency department. Pediatr Neonatol 2016;57:371-7.  Back to cited text no. 59
    
60.
Yousaf R, Gu C, Ahmed ZM, Khan SN, Friedman TB, Riazuddin S, et al. Mutations in diphosphoinositol-pentakisphosphate kinase PPIP5K2 are associated with hearing loss in human and mouse. PLoS Genet 2018;14:e1007297.  Back to cited text no. 60
    
61.
Cheng YF, Tsai YH, Huang CY, Lee YS, Chang PC, Lu YC, et al. Generation and pathological characterization of a transgenic mouse model carrying a missense PJVK mutation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2020;532:675-81.  Back to cited text no. 61
    
62.
Masmoudi S, Tlili A, Majava M, Ghorbel AM, Chardenoux S, Lemainque A, et al. Mapping of a new autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss locus (DFNB32) to chromosome 1p13.3-22.1. Eur J Hum Genet 2003;11:185-8.  Back to cited text no. 62
    
63.
Delmaghani S, Aghaie A, Bouyacoub Y, El Hachmi H, Bonnet C, Riahi Z, et al. Mutations in CDC14A, encoding a protein phosphatase involved in hair cell ciliogenesis, cause autosomal-recessive severe to profound deafness. Am J Hum Genet 2016;98:1266-70.  Back to cited text no. 63
    
64.
Collin RW, Kalay E, Tariq M, Peters T, van der Zwaag B, Venselaar H, et al. Mutations of ESRRB encoding estrogen-related receptor beta cause autosomal-recessive nonsyndromic hearing impairment DFNB35. Am J Hum Genet 2008;82:125-38.  Back to cited text no. 64
    
65.
Frejo L, Giegling I, Teggi R, Lopez-Escamez JA, Rujescu D. Genetics of vestibular disorders: Pathophysiological insights. J Neurol 2016;263 Suppl 1:S45-53.  Back to cited text no. 65
    
66.
Diaz-Horta O, Abad C, Sennaroglu L, Foster J 2nd, DeSmidt A, Bademci G, et al. ROR1 is essential for proper innervation of auditory hair cells and hearing in humans and mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2016;113:5993-8.  Back to cited text no. 66
    
67.
Nance WE. The genetics of deafness. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev 2003;9:109-19.  Back to cited text no. 67
    
68.
Kim MA, Cho HJ, Bae SH, Lee B, Oh SK, Kwon TJ, et al. Methionine sulfoxide reductase B3-targeted in utero gene therapy rescues hearing function in a mouse model of congenital sensorineural hearing loss. Antioxid Redox Signal 2016;24:590-602.  Back to cited text no. 68
    
69.
Fukui H, Wong HT, Beyer LA, Case BG, Swiderski DL, Di Polo A, et al. BDNF gene therapy induces auditory nerve survival and fiber sprouting in deaf Pou4f3 mutant mice. Sci Rep 2012;2:838.  Back to cited text no. 69
    
70.
Akil O, Seal RP, Burke K, Wang C, Alemi A, During M, et al. Restoration of hearing in the VGLUT3 knockout mouse using virally mediated gene therapy. Neuron 2012;75:283-93.  Back to cited text no. 70
    
71.
Nist-Lund CA, Pan B, Patterson A, Asai Y, Chen T, Zhou W, et al. Improved TMC1 gene therapy restores hearing and balance in mice with genetic inner ear disorders. Nat Commun 2019;10:1-14.  Back to cited text no. 71
    
72.
Pan B, Askew C, Galvin A, Heman-Ackah S, Asai Y, Indzhykulian AA, et al. Gene therapy restores auditory and vestibular function in a mouse model of Usher syndrome type 1c. Nat Biotechnol 2017;35:264-72.  Back to cited text no. 72
    
73.
Kesser BW, Hashisaki GT, Holt JR. Gene transfer in human vestibular epithelia and the prospects for inner ear gene therapy. Laryngoscope 2008;118:821-31.  Back to cited text no. 73
    
74.
Iizuka T, Kamiya K, Gotoh S, Sugitani Y, Suzuki M, Noda T, et al. Perinatal Gjb2 gene transfer rescues hearing in a mouse model of hereditary deafness. Hum Mol Genet 2015;24:3651-61.  Back to cited text no. 74
    
75.
Morgan A, Koboldt DC, Barrie ES, Crist ER, García García G, Mezzavilla M, et al. Mutations in PLS1, encoding fimbrin, cause autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss. Hum Mutat 2019;40:2286-95.  Back to cited text no. 75
    
76.
Sineni CJ, Yildirim-Baylan M, Guo S, Camarena V, Wang G, Tokgoz-Yilmaz S, et al. A truncating CLDN9 variant is associated with autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss. Hum Genet 2019;138:1071-5.  Back to cited text no. 76
    
77.
Dunbar LA, Patni P, Aguilar C, Mburu P, Corns L, Wells HR, et al. Clarin-2 is essential for hearing by maintaining stereocilia integrity and function. EMBO Mol Med 2019;11:e10288.  Back to cited text no. 77
    
78.
Yoshimura H, Shibata SB, Ranum PT, Moteki H, Smith RJ. Targeted allele suppression prevents progressive hearing loss in the mature murine model of human TMC1 deafness. Mol Ther 2019;27:681-90.  Back to cited text no. 78
    
79.
Fukushima K, Ramesh A, Srisailapathy CR, Ni L, Wayne S, O'Neill ME, et al. An autosomal recessive nonsyndromic form of sensorineural hearing loss maps to 3p-DFNB6. Genome Res 1995;5:305-8.  Back to cited text no. 79
    
80.
Naz S, Giguere CM, Kohrman DC, Mitchem KL, Riazuddin S, Morell RJ, et al. Mutations in a novel gene, TMIE, are associated with hearing loss linked to the DFNB6 locus. Am J Hum Genet 2002;71:632-6.  Back to cited text no. 80
    
81.
Charizopoulou N, Lelli A, Schraders M, Ray K, Hildebrand MS, Ramesh A, et al. Gipc3 mutations associated with audiogenic seizures and sensorineural hearing loss in mouse and human. Nat Commun 2011;2:201.  Back to cited text no. 81
    
82.
Vona B, Hofrichter MA, Neuner C, Schröder J, Gehrig A, Hennermann JB, et al. DFNB16 is a frequent cause of congenital hearing impairment: Implementation of STRC mutation analysis in routine diagnostics. Clin Genet 2015;87:49-55.  Back to cited text no. 82
    
83.
Ouyang XM, Xia XJ, Verpy E, Du LL, Pandya A, Petit C, et al. Mutations in the alternatively spliced exons of USH1C cause non-syndromic recessive deafness. Hum Genet 2002;111:26-30.  Back to cited text no. 83
    
84.
Khan SY, Ahmed ZM, Shabbir MI, Kitajiri S, Kalsoom S, Tasneem S, et al. Mutations of the RDX gene cause nonsyndromic hearing loss at the DFNB24 locus. Hum Mutat 2007;28:417-23.  Back to cited text no. 84
    
85.
Ahmed ZM, Morell RJ, Riazuddin S, Gropman A, Shaukat S, Ahmad MM, et al. Mutations of MYO6 are associated with recessive deafness, DFNB37. Am J Hum Genet 2003;72:1315-22.  Back to cited text no. 85
    
86.
de Joya EM, Colbert BM, Tang PC, Lam BL, Yang J, Blanton SH, et al. Usher syndrome in the inner ear: Etiologies and advances in gene therapy. Int J Mol Sci 2021;22:3910.  Back to cited text no. 86
    
87.
Riazuddin S, Belyantseva IA, Giese AP, Lee K, Indzhykulian AA, Nandamuri SP, et al. Alterations of the CIB2 calcium- and integrin-binding protein cause Usher syndrome type 1J and nonsyndromic deafness DFNB48. Nat Genet 2012;44:1265-71.  Back to cited text no. 87
    
88.
Fahimi H, Behroozi S, Noavar S, Parvini F. A novel recessive PDZD7 bi-allelic mutation in an Iranian family with non-syndromic hearing loss. BMC Med Genomics 2021;14:37.  Back to cited text no. 88
    
89.
Lin Y, Zhang J, Li X, Zheng D, Yu X, Liu Y, et al. Biallelic mutations in DCDC2 cause neonatal sclerosing cholangitis in a Chinese family. Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 2020;44:e103-8.  Back to cited text no. 89
    
90.
Al-Amri AH, Al Saegh A, Al-Mamari W, El-Asrag ME, Al-Kindi MN, Al Khabouri M, et al. LHFPL5 mutation: A rare cause of non-syndromic autosomal recessive hearing loss. Eur J Med Genet 2019;62:103592.  Back to cited text no. 90
    
91.
Santos-Cortez RL, Faridi R, Rehman AU, Lee K, Ansar M, Wang X, et al. Autosomal-recessive hearing impairment due to rare missense variants within S1PR2. Am J Hum Genet 2016;98:331-8.  Back to cited text no. 91
    
92.
von Ameln S, Wang G, Boulouiz R, Rutherford MA, Smith GM, Li Y, et al. A mutation in PNPT1, encoding mitochondrial-RNA-import protein PNPase, causes hereditary hearing loss. Am J Hum Genet 2012;91:919-27.  Back to cited text no. 92
    
93.
Oh DY, Choi BY. Genetic information and precision medicine in hearing loss. Clin Exp Otorhinolaryngol 2020;13:315-7.  Back to cited text no. 93
    
94.
Ebrahimi P, Moghadam M, Maydanchi M, Jamshidabadi S, Ebrahimi A, Saber A. A truncating GPSM2 mutation causes autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss: A case report. SN Compr Clin Med 2021;3:897-900.  Back to cited text no. 94
    
95.
Wu S, Hei Z, Zheng L, Zhou J, Liu Z, Wang J, et al. Structural analyses of a human lysyl-tRNA synthetase mutant associated with autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing impairment. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021;554:83-8.  Back to cited text no. 95
    
96.
Delmaghani S, Aghaie A, Michalski N, Bonnet C, Weil D, Petit C. Defect in the gene encoding the EAR/EPTP domain-containing protein TSPEAR causes DFNB98 profound deafness. Hum Mol Genet 2012;21:3835-44.  Back to cited text no. 96
    
97.
Imtiaz A, Kohrman DC, Naz S. A frameshift mutation in GRXCR 2 causes recessively inherited hearing loss. Hum Mutat 2014;35:618-24.  Back to cited text no. 97
    
98.
Behlouli A, Bonnet C, Abdi S, Bouaita A, Lelli A, Hardelin JP, et al. EPS8, encoding an actin-binding protein of cochlear hair cell stereocilia, is a new causal gene for autosomal recessive profound deafness. Orphanet J Rare Dis 2014;9:55.  Back to cited text no. 98
    
99.
Seco CZ, Oonk AM, Domínguez-Ruiz M, Draaisma JM, Gandía M, Oostrik J, et al. Progressive hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction caused by a homozygous nonsense mutation in CLIC5. Eur J Hum Genet 2015;23:189-94.  Back to cited text no. 99
    
100.
Buniello A, Ingham NJ, Lewis MA, Huma AC, Martinez-Vega R, Varela-Nieto I, et al. Wbp2 is required for normal glutamatergic synapses in the cochlea and is crucial for hearing. EMBO Mol Med 2016;8:191-207.  Back to cited text no. 100
    
101.
Rohacek AM, Bebee TW, Tilton RK, Radens CM, McDermott-Roe C, Peart N, et al. ESRP1 mutations cause hearing loss due to defects in alternative splicing that disrupt cochlear development. Dev Cell 2017;43:318-31.e5.  Back to cited text no. 101
    
102.
Wesdorp M, Murillo-Cuesta S, Peters T, Celaya AM, Oonk A, Schraders M, et al. MPZL2, encoding the epithelial junctional protein myelin protein zero-like 2, is essential for hearing in man and mouse. Am J Hum Genet 2018;103:74-88.  Back to cited text no. 102
    
103.
Liu X, Han D, Li J, Han B, Ouyang X, Cheng J, et al. Loss-of-function mutations in the PRPS1 gene cause a type of nonsyndromic X-linked sensorineural deafness, DFN2. Am J Hum Genet 2010;86:65-71.  Back to cited text no. 103
    
104.
de Kok YJ, van der Maarel SM, Bitner-Glindzicz M, Huber I, Monaco AP, Malcolm S, et al. Association between X-linked mixed deafness and mutations in the POU domain gene POU3F4. Science 1995;267:685-8.  Back to cited text no. 104
    
105.
Schraders M, Haas SA, Weegerink NJ, Oostrik J, Hu H, Hoefsloot LH, et al. Next-generation sequencing identifies mutations of SMPX, which encodes the small muscle protein, X-linked, as a cause of progressive hearing impairment. Am J Hum Genet 2011;88:628-34.  Back to cited text no. 105
    
106.
Zong L, Guan J, Ealy M, Zhang Q, Wang D, Wang H, et al. Mutations in apoptosis-inducing factor cause X-linked recessive auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder. J Med Genet 2015;52:523-31.  Back to cited text no. 106
    
107.
Rost S, Bach E, Neuner C, Nanda I, Dysek S, Bittner RE, et al. Novel form of X-linked nonsyndromic hearing loss with cochlear malformation caused by a mutation in the type IV collagen gene COL4A6. Eur J Hum Genet 2014;22:208-15.  Back to cited text no. 107
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
Abstract
Hearing Loss
Genes and Protei...
Transcription Fa...
Signaling
Interactions of ...
Gene Therapy for...
Conclusion
References
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed816    
    Printed54    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded107    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal